Some unsolved problems in biology include:

  • Life. How did it start? Is life a cosmic phenomenon? Are the conditions necessary for the origin of life narrow or broad? Did life start on this planet or was there an extraterrestrial intervention (for example a meteor from another planet)? Is immortality, for which Transhumanism searches, possible?
  • DNA / Genome. What are all the functions of the DNA? Other than the structural genes, which is the simpler part of the system? What is the complete structure and function of the proteome proteins expressed by a cell or organ at a particular time and under specific conditions? What is the complete function of the regulator genes? The building block of life may be a precursor to a generation of electronic devices and computers, but what are the electronic properties of DNA? Does Junk DNA function as molecular garbage? Is it possible to improve one's human DNA? Lyricus DNA Project
  • Consciousness / Self. What is it? Why is it necessary for many animals (especially mammals) to dream? What are the inheritable characteristics of intelligence?
  • Bioelectromagnetism: How do animals possess long-range navigation and migration abilities? How was the homing ability developed? How can some animals detect earthquake precursors? What are the effects of natural electric fields?
  • Viruses / Immune system. What are the signs of current or past infection to discover where Ebola hides between human outbreaks? What is the origin of antibody diversity? What is the relationship between the immune system and the brain?
  • Viking's methane. The Viking lander detected emissions of carbon-14-containing methane, which indicates the possible presence of life on Mars.
  • What causes hand-foot_syndrome? Wikipedia: hand-foot_syndrome
  • What is the function of oxyphil cells in the parathyroid gland? Wikipedia: parathyroid gland
  • Some people claim there are important gaps in science, such as: Can apes swim?
  • What mechanism causes titanium to accumulate in plants? And what is up with vanadium in the sea cucumber and some poisonous mushrooms?
  • Placozoans (literally "flat animals") have never been observed in their natural habitat. Outside of aquariums, where do they live and what do they eat? What is the function of the folds along the edges and dorsal surface, and the "shiny spheres" on the edges? Why does one sometimes "string out" into several amoeba-like forms, with protoplasm streaming from one form to the next over thin bridges?[1][2]

Some of the most important unsolved problems in biology are classified as unsolved problems in neuroscience.

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